Yet these adults were not alone in thinking about the Great Migration, as girls expressed their views as well. Referencing girls' letters and interviews, and in so doing, anticipation and disappointment to highlight their feelings and thoughts, Chatelain uses their powerful stories of hope, she helps restore the experiences of an understudied population to the Great Migration's complex narrative.
South Side Girls: Growing Up in the Great Migration - Girls shouldered much of the burden of black aspiration, as adults often scrutinized their choices and behavior, and their well-being symbolized the community's moral health. She argues that the construction and meaning of black girlhood shifted in response to major economic, and cultural changes and crises, social, and that it reflected parents' and community leaders' anxieties about urbanization and its meaning for racial progress.
Crescent City Girls: The Lives of Young Black Women in Segregated New Orleans Gender and American CultureThe University of North Carolina Press - What was it like to grow up black and female in the segregated South? To answer this question, LaKisha Simmons blends social history and cultural studies, recreating children's streets and neighborhoods within Jim Crow New Orleans and offering a rare look into black girls' personal lives. Simmons makes use of oral histories, the black and white press, working-class families; some from middle-class, social workers' reports, girls' fiction writing, police reports, and photography to tell the stories of individual girls: some from poor, "respectable" families; and some caught in the Jim Crow judicial system.
These voices come together to create a group biography of ordinary girls living in an extraordinary time, girls who did not intend to make history but whose stories transform our understanding of both segregation and childhood. Simmons argues that these children faced the difficult task of adhering to middle-class expectations of purity and respectability even as they encountered the daily realities of Jim Crow violence, which included interracial sexual aggression, street harassment, and presumptions of black girls' impurity.
Sex Workers, Psychics, and Numbers Runners: Black Women in New York City's Underground Economy New Black Studies SeriesUniversity of Illinois Press - During the early twentieth century, a diverse group of African American women carved out unique niches for themselves within New York City's expansive informal economy. At the same time, urban black women, all striving for economic and social prospects and pleasures, experienced the conspicuous and hidden dangers associated with newfound labor opportunities.
Mining police and prison records, newspaper accounts, and period literature, Harris teases out answers to essential questions about these women and their working lives. She also offers a surprising revelation, occupational identities, arguing that the burgeoning underground economy served as a catalyst in working-class black women ™s creation of the employment opportunities, and survival strategies that provided them with financial stability and a sense of labor autonomy and mobility.
Sex Workers, Psychics, and Numbers Runners: Black Women in New York City's Underground Economy New Black Studies Series - . Lashawn harris illuminates the labor patterns and economic activity of three perennials within this kaleidoscope of underground industry: sex work, numbers running for gambling enterprises, and the supernatural consulting business.
Polluted Promises: Environmental Racism and the Search for Justice in a Southern TownNYU Press - Polluted promises shows that even in the post-civil rights era, race and class are still key factors in determining the politics of pollution. This community, at one time surrounded by nine polluting industries, is struggling to make their voices heard and their community safe again. Association for humanist sociology 2007 book award co-winnerjulian Steward Award 2006 Runner-Up!Over the past two decades, environmental racism has become the rallying cry for many communities as they discover the contaminations of toxic chemicals and industrial waste in their own backyards.
Living next door to factories and industrial sites for years, the people in these communities often have record health problems and debilitating medical conditions. Melissa checker tells the story of one such neighborhood, in Augusta, Hyde Park, Georgia, and the tenacious activism of its two hundred African American families.
Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and CultureThe University of North Carolina Press - During an era of expansion and political struggle in California's system of public higher education, black southern migrants formed the BPP. By excavating this hidden history, living for the City broadens the scholarship of the Black Power movement by documenting the contributions of black students and youth who created new forms of organization, grassroots mobilization, and political literacy.
Drawing on oral history and untapped archival sources, she explains how a relatively small city with a recent history of African American settlement produced such compelling and influential forms of Black Power politics. In the face of social crisis and police violence, poor, the most disfranchised sectors of the East Bay's African American community--young, and migrant--challenged the legitimacy of state authorities and of an older generation of black leadership.
Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture - In this nuanced and groundbreaking history, Donna Murch argues that the Black Panther Party BPP started with a study group. In the early 1960s, attending merritt college and other public universities radicalized Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and many of the young people who joined the Panthers' rank and file.
Anthem: Social Movements and the Sound of Solidarity in the African DiasporaNYU Press - Providing new political frames and aesthetic articulations for protest organizations and activist-musicians, Redmond reveals the anthem as a crucial musical form following World War I. Beginning with the premise that an analysis of the composition, performance, and uses of Black anthems allows for a more complex reading of racial and political formations within the twentieth century, Redmond expands our understanding of how and why diaspora was a formative conceptual and political framework of modern Black identity.
For people of African descent, music constitutes a unique domain of expression. By tracing key compositions and performances around the world—from james weldon johnson’s “lift ev’ry voice and sing” that mobilized the NAACP to Nina Simone’s “To Be Young, Gifted & Black” which became the Black National Anthem of the Congress of Racial Equality CORE—Anthem develops a robust recording of Black social movements in the twentieth century that will forever alter the way you hear race and nation.
Anthem: Social Movements and the Sound of Solidarity in the African Diaspora - Shana redmond excavates the sonic histories of these communities through a genre emblematic of Black solidarity and citizenship: anthems. From traditional west african drumming to South African kwaito, from spirituals to hip-hop, Black life and history has been dynamically displayed and contested through sound.
. An interdisciplinary cultural history, Anthem reveals how this “sound franchise” contributed to the growth and mobilization of the modern, Black citizen.
Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California American Crossroads Book 21University of California Press - The results—a vast and expensive prison system, and the increase in punitive justice such as the "three strikes" law—pose profound and troubling questions for the future of California, a huge number of incarcerated young people of color, the United States, and the world. Detailing crises that hit california’s economy with particular ferocity, weakening of labor, she argues that defeats of radical struggles, and shifting patterns of capital investment have been key conditions for prison growth.
Golden gulag provides a rich context for this complex dilemma, and at the same time challenges many cherished assumptions about who benefits and who suffers from the state’s commitment to prison expansion. In an informed and impassioned account, and urban perspectives to explain how the expansion developed from surpluses of finance capital, land, labor, Ruth Wilson Gilmore examines this issue through statewide, rural, and state capacity.
Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California American Crossroads Book 21 - Despite a crime rate that has been falling steadily for decades, California has led the way in this explosion, with what a state analyst called "the biggest prison building project in the history of the world. Golden gulag provides the first detailed explanation for that buildup by looking at how political and economic forces, ranging from global to local, conjoined to produce the prison boom.
Since 1980, the number of people in U. S. Prisons has increased more than 450%.
To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. WellsHill and Wang - Wells became a fearless antilynching crusader, women's rights advocate, and journalist. Though she ultimately lost her case on appeal in the Supreme Court of Tennessee, the published account of her legal challenge to Jim Crow changed her life, propelling her into a career as an outspoken journalist and social activist.
The life of Ida B. Washington's accommodationism but also the moderating influence of white reformers within the early NAACP. Forcibly ejected from her seat on a train one day on account of her race, Wells immediately sued the railroad. Always militant in her quest for racial justice, Wells rejected not only Booker T.
In the richly illustrated to tell the truth freely, the historian Mia Bay vividly captures Wells's legacy and life, from her childhood in Mississippi to her early career in late nineteenth-century Memphis and her later life in Progressive-era Chicago. Wells's fight for racial and gender justice began in 1883, when she was a young schoolteacher who traveled to her rural schoolhouse by rail.
To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. Wells - Born to slaves in 1862, Ida B. Wells and her enduring achievements are dramatically recovered in Mia Bay's To Tell the Truth Freely. Also a fierce critic of the racial violence that marked her era, Wells went on to launch a crusade against lynching that took her across the United States and eventually to Britain.
Though she helped found the naaCP in 1910 after resettling in Chicago, she would not remain a member for long. Wells's refusal to accept any compromise on racial inequality caused her to be labeled a "dangerous radical" in her day but made her a model for later civil rights activists as well as a powerful witness to the troubled racial politics of her era.
Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American DiasporaHarvard University Press - Smallwood takes us into the ports and stone fortresses where African captives were held and prepared, and then through the Middle Passage itself. The result is both a remarkable transatlantic view of the culture of enslavement, and a painful, intimate vision of the bloody, daily business of the slave trade.
Stephanie E. Arriving in america, we see how these new migrants enter the market for laboring bodies, and struggle to reconstruct their social identities in the New World. Throughout, smallwood examines how the people at the center of her story-merchant capitalists, sailors, and slaves-made sense of the bloody process in which they were joined.
Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora - This bold, innovative book promises to radically alter our understanding of the Atlantic slave trade, and the depths of its horrors. In extraordinary detail, we witness these men and women cramped in the holds of ships, gasping for air, and trying to make sense of an unfamiliar sea and an unimaginable destination.
Ultimately, saltwater Slavery details how African people were transformed into Atlantic commodities in the process. She begins her narrative on the shores of seventeenth-century Africa, tracing how the trade in human bodies came to define the life of the Gold Coast. Smallwood offers a penetrating look at the process of enslavement from its African origins through the Middle Passage and into the American slave market.
Smallwood's story is animated by deep research and gives us a startlingly graphic experience of the slave trade from the vantage point of the slaves themselves.
The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa ParksBeacon Press - She shows readers how this civil rights movement radical sought—for more than a half a century—to expose and eradicate the American racial-caste system in jobs, public services, schools, and criminal justice.2014 naacp image award winner: outstanding literary work – biography / auto biography2013 letitia woods brown award from the association of black women Historians Choice Top 25 Academic Titles for 2013The definitive political biography of Rosa Parks examines her six decades of activism, birthed the modern civil rights movement, with a single act, challenging perceptions of her as an accidental actor in the civil rights movementPresenting a corrective to the popular notion of Rosa Parks as the quiet seamstress who, Theoharis provides a revealing window into Parks’s politics and years of activism.
The Loneliness of the Black Republican: Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power Politics and Society in Modern America Book 110Princeton University Press - Moving beyond traditional liberalism and conservatism, black Republicans sought to address African American racial experiences in a distinctly Republican way. The loneliness of the black republican provides a new understanding of the interaction between African Americans and the Republican Party, and the seemingly incongruous intersection of civil rights and American conservatism.
What's more, especially among the black press, sometimes garnered support from outside the Republican Party, Democratic officials, black Republican initiatives, such as the fair housing legislation of senator Edward Brooke, and constituents of all races. In response, black republicans vocally, and at times viciously, critiqued members of their race and party, in an effort to shape the attitudes and public images of black citizens and the GOP.
Their unique stories reveal african Americans fighting for an alternative economic and civil rights movement—even as the Republican Party appeared increasingly hostile to that very idea. Covering more than four decades of american social and political history, The Loneliness of the Black Republican examines the ideas and actions of black Republican activists, officials, and politicians, from the era of the New Deal to Ronald Reagan's presidential ascent in 1980.
The Loneliness of the Black Republican: Pragmatic Politics and the Pursuit of Power Politics and Society in Modern America Book 110 - Black party members attempted to influence the direction of conservatism—not to destroy it, but rather to expand the ideology to include black needs and interests. As racial minorities in their political party and as political minorities within their community, black Republicans occupied an irreconcilable position—they were shunned by African American communities and subordinated by the GOP.
And yet, factions of the republican party, there was also a measure of irony to black Republicans' "loneliness": at various points, such as the Nixon administration, instituted some of the policies and programs offered by black party members.